Yes! Many! Although not as many as there used to be say 50 years ago. In many countries public baths have all but vanished, but in others the bathing culture is still very much alive in one form or another.
Public baths in Finland
In Finland the sauna, the Finnish version of public bathing, is still a common way for cold Finns to warm their bodies and socialize. The sauna is perhaps Finland’s most famous cultural export product. The hot boxes are found all over the world. In our Japanese bath houses we also see the sauna as one of the most popular features.
Not surprising the sauna is somewhat indigenous to the Nordic countries. The cold climate calls for warmth. Nevertheless similar sweat lodges are found in the culture of Native Americans. In Finland the Industrial Revolution made the sauna available to the masses. Nowadays most Finnish houses have a sauna built in.
Check out the Visit Finland website for an introduction to the Finnish sauna.
Public baths in Russia
The banya is the Russian interpretation of a public bath. It is not unlike the Finnish sauna, with steam being a big part of the experience. The word banya is also used to describe the majestic public baths of Sundany is Moscow. If you ever wanted to experience a bath like the ancient Romans did, Sundany is close. The bath house is more like a palace than a bath and is popular with the upperclass of Moscow.
Public baths in Turkey
In Turkey the hamam is where the locals wash, relax and socialize. The Finnish sauna and the Russian banya are primarily about heat and steam to cleanse the body from the inside by making the sweat glands work the Turkish hamam is primarily meant for washing the body from the outside. Most hamam are equipped with a steam bath comparable to a sauna though.
Besides Turkey hamam are found in the highlands of Iran and other parts of the Islamic world as well. No surprise, since one of the five pillars of the Islam prayer. Cleansing the body is part of this, hence the baths.
The number of public baths in Japan is dwindling because most houses now have baths installed. That makes the bath houses in Japan somewhat obsolete. The religious aspect attached to bathing in Turkey and other parts and of the Islamic world helps the hamam to stay relevant. You do not have to be Muslim however to enjoy a hamam. The Turks welcome everyone into their bath houses.
Our colleagues over at Hamam Guide do pretty much what we do but in Turkey.
Public baths in South Korea
The Jjimjilbang is probably closest to the Japanese sentō, both in geography and is customs. In South Korea the bathing culture is still very much alive.